此為2017/09 , ASHA期刊之研究
Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate dual-task performance in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not to investigate if the groups differed in the ability to attend and allocate cognitive resources effectively during task performance.
Method Participants were 24 children (12 CWS) in both groups matched for age and sex. For the primary task, participants performed a phoneme monitoring in a picture–written word interference task. For the secondary task, participants made pitch judgments on tones presented at varying (short, long) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) from the onset of the picture.
Results The CWS were comparable to the children who do not stutter in performing the monitoring task although the SOA-based performance differences in this task were more variable in the CWS. The CWS were also significantly slower in making tone decisions at the short SOA and showed a trend for making more errors in this task.
Conclusions The findings are interpreted to suggest higher dual-task cost effects in CWS. A potential explanation for this finding requiring further testing and confirmation is that the CWS show reduced efficiency in attending to the tone stimuli while simultaneously prioritizing attention to the phoneme-monitoring task.
What is Stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA)?
SOA is a measure used in experimental psychology. SOA denotes the amount of time between the start of one stimulus, S1, and the start of another stimulus, S2 (Figure 1) (心理學實驗中常用的一種方式.指當給予刺激1時到給予刺激2之間的時間)
In this respect, a stimulus may consist of, e.g., a presented image, sound or printed word. (給予的刺激可以是 圖片,聲音,印刷文字)
A short time interval between S1 and S2 may lead to interference in the neural processing of these two patterns. Conversely, a very long SOA may lead to a situation where the brain activity caused by S1 may have faded, such that S2 has become an isolated event. (若S1和S2間距(SOA)為短的,則可能會干擾處理這兩種神經模式的情形,相反地,如果是一個很長的SOA,則可會導致S1引起的大腦反應消失,那S2則可視為一種獨立事件)
Typical research questions concern the facilitation, deterioration, or biasing effects of the sequential stimulus presentation on a required later response.(典型的研究問題涉及促發,惡化,偏誤而影響後面需要的反應之影響)