2016年1月2日 星期六

構音 V.S. 音韻異常 (articulation V.S.phonology disorder)

 構音異常 V.S. 音韻異常(articulation v.s.phonology disorder)
   
     * articulation errors
         —relatively consistent errors, with preserved phonemic contrasts (e.g., /l/ and /r/ are consistently distorted, but clearly different from one another; Bauman-Waengler, 2012

     *error patterns (i.e., phonological patterns)
         —systematic sound changes or simplifications that affect a class of sounds (e.g., fricatives), sequences of sounds (e.g., consonant clusters), or syllable structures (e.g., complex syllable structures or multisyllabic words.

         source from:

◎ how Intelligible is the child's speech?
age 2:      50% intelligible
age 2.5:  50-70% intelligible
age 3:     70%  intelligible
age 4:     an array of consonants is mastered
age 5:     many consonant sounds are used consistently and accurately

◎構音/音韻問題之原因分析:
  - 聽力聽力檢查(詢問醫療史)/觀察對環境聲音的反應
  -口腔動作:構造/生理
  -音韻歷程:結構歷程/替代歷程(位置/方法)/同化歷程
  -動作計畫:apraxia
  -語言能力

臨床語音錯誤分類 (Articulation errors):
   -Omission(省略)
   -Substitution(替代)
   -Distortion(扭曲)
   -Addition(添加)

音韻歷程( Phonology processes):
   *Assimilation
   *Feature contrast or substitution processes
    -Stopping:it as substitute of stops for fricative.
    -Fronting:the replacement of target phoneme with anther phoneme that is articulated anteriorly  to the target sound.
    -Backing:the replacement of target phoneme with anther phoneme that is articulated posteriorly to the target sound.
    -Affrication:a stopping component is added to a continue consonant.
    -Deaffrication:is the process of replacing an affrication with deaffrication.
    -Palatalization:a sound is produced as a palate rather than a nonpalatal.
    -Depalatalizationa sound is produced as a nonpalate rather than a palatal.
    -Gliding:use a glide (/w,j/) for anther consonant (frequently /r, l/).
    -Vocalization/vowelizationa vowel is substituted for a syllabic consonant. 
 -Denasalizationa nasal is replaced by a nonnasal sound.
 -Neutralization:several different phonemes are replaced by one sound.
   .......
        source from: Book : Clinical Management of Articulatory and Phonologic Disorders
          chapter3 Phonological system and development
          作者:Mary Ellen Gordon-Brannan,Curtis E. Weiss

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