2015年12月20日 星期日

嬰幼兒吞嚥障礙之徵兆(The Signs and symptoms of Pediatric dysphagia)  


您如何知道孩子吃得好呢?

在整個進食/吞嚥的過程中

不僅僅出現嗆咳, 才表示有吞嚥問題

在寶貝進食的過程中有那些是我們可以多加留意的地方呢?

以下提供嬰幼兒吞嚥障礙的徵兆~ 

您可以觀察看看孩子在進食時, 是否有以下情形? 

back arching(背拱起)
breathing difficulties when feeding(進食時呼吸困難)
  increased respiratory rate during feeding(進食時呼吸速率變快)
  skin color change such as turning blue(皮膚顏色改變/藍色)
  apnea(窒息)
  stopping frequently due to uncoordinated suck-swallow-breathe pattern
    (因吸吞呼吸不協調而經常停止吸吮)
  desaturation (decreasing oxygen saturation levels)(血氧下降)
  changes in normal heart rate (brachycardia or tachycardia) in association with
    feeding(改變正常的心跳速度)
coughing and/or choking during or after swallowing(進食時/後咳嗽或嗆咳)
crying during mealtimes(進食時哭)
decreased responsiveness during feeding(進食時反應減少)
dehydration(脫水)
difficulty chewing foods that are texturally appropriate for age (may spit out
    partially chewed food)(咀嚼不佳,可能吐出食物)
difficulty initiating swallowing(難以啟動吞嚥)
difficulty managing secretions (including non-teething related drooling of saliva)
    (難以控制口水)
disengagement cues, such as facial grimacing, finger splaying, or head turning
  away from food source(做出鬼臉/手指撥開/轉頭表示不要食物)
frequent congestion, particularly after meals(經常剩下食物)
frequent respiratory illnesses(經常有呼吸相關的疾病)
gagging(作嘔)
loss of food/liquid from the mouth when eating(進食時有些食物或液體從嘴巴流出來)
noisy or wet vocal quality noted during and after feeding(進食時/後有呼嚕聲)
prolonged feeding times(進食時間過久)
refusing foods of certain textures or types(拒絕某種材質的食物)
taking only small volumes, over-packing the mouth, and/or pocketing foods
(每口都吃很小口,嘴巴過度包覆/藏食物在嘴裡)
vomiting (more than typical "spit up" for infants)(過度的嘔吐)
weight loss or lack of appropriate weight gain(體重減輕或是沒有適切的增加體重)

the source from American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)

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