2015年12月27日 星期日

敘述的類型(Type of narrative)

 Type of narrative
   -Fictional/imaginary narratives (想像故事)
   -Personal narrative(生活故事)
     -account(聽話者未看到說話者經驗)
     -recount(聽話者及說話者有相同的經驗)
   -Script(腳本)

 Macro-structures (overall organization contents/events/episodes/à coherence)
Setting + Episode(initiating + attempt/action + consequence)
(1)   story grammar analysis 

-Setting: people, time, location/place,like or dislike, feature (,時間 ,地點,喜好/特徵)
-Initiating event:something change the status of main role  (改變主角的狀態,某事件/問題)
-Internal response: how the main role to  response about initiating event, include  cognitive,emotion,and physical response.(主角對於引發事件的認知/情感/生理反應)
-Internal plan:the plan to achieve the goal.(主角的策略或計畫以達目標)
-Attempt / action: the act to achieve the goal.(主角為達到目標所做的事)
-Consequence: is success or failure about the goal? (對於目標的結果是成功/失敗)
-Reaction: what dose the main role think about the consequence? (include 
  thinking,emotion,behavior)(主角對於結果的情緒.想法,行為)

not every sentence include all elements(並非每個語句都含有以上的要素)

(2)   high point analysis good for personal narrative (有邏輯且加入個人理解/評價 
     
     -Abstract/introduction
     -Orientation (~setting)
     -Complicating action (~initiating event)
     -Evaluation (~internal response/ reaction)
      -cognitive inferences:want to .../think.../guess (想要//認為…)
      -reference to emotional states or behaviors:sad or happy (難過/高興)
      -social engagement (吸引聽者注意用語)
        -->sound effect: meow~  wow ! (喵~ )
        -->character speech :someone say "...."(誰說….)
      -hedges(表確定程度用語)
      -intensifiers:more,very......()
      -causal inference:because...; So......(因為所以…)
    -Resolution (~attempt & consequence)
    -Coda (結語)

    Micro-structures (the between individual utterance à cohesion & syntax)
        Cohesion(凝聚)
        -conjunction(連接詞)
        -lexical cohesion(詞彙凝聚)
          àreiteration
          àsynonymy
      -reference(指稱詞)
         àdefinite(限定詞)
        àpronominal/demonstrative (代名詞/指示詞)



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