A normal brain and one showing the enlarged ventricles of hydrocephalus. The additional fluid in the ventricles causes increased pressure on the brain.
the image about hydrocephalus:
*Causes and symptoms
àHydrocephalus has a variety of causes including the following:
-congenital brain defects
-hemorrhage, either into the ventricles or the subarachnoid space
-infection of the central nervous system (syphilis, herpes, meningitis, encephalitis , or mumps)
àSigns and symptoms of elevated-pressure hydrocephalus include the following:
-nausea and vomiting, especially in the morning
-disturbances in walking (gait)
-subtle difficulties in learning and memory
-delay in achieving childhood developmental milestones
Imaging studies such as x ray, computed tomography scan (CT scan), ultrasound, and
especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to assess the presence and location of obstructions, as well as changes in brain tissue that have occurred as a result of the hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may be performed to aid in determining the cause when infection is suspected.
The primary method of treatment for hydrocephalus is surgical installation of a shunt. A shunt is a tube connecting the ventricles of the brain to an alternative drainage site, usually the abdominal cavity. A shunt contains a one-way valve to prevent reverse flow of fluid. In some cases of non-communicating hydrocephalus, a direct connection can be made between one of the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, allowing drainage without a shunt.
Installation of a shunt requires lifelong monitoring by the recipient or family members for signs of recurring hydrocephalus due to obstruction or failure of the shunt. Other than monitoring, no other management activity is usually required.
Some drugs may postpone the need for surgery by inhibiting the production of CSF. These include acetazolamide and furosemide. Other drugs that are used to delay surgery are glycerol, digoxin, and isosorbide.
National institute of neurological disorders and stroke